Eating Disorders + Obesity

Low carbohydrate ketogenic therapy as a metabolic treatment for binge eating and ultraprocessed food addiction

This paper explores proposed mechanisms of why a diet low in refined carbohydrates, processed sugar and higher fat content may be helpful in alleviating symptoms.

An overview of links between obesity and mental health

This review examines the overlap between mental illness and comorbid obesity highlighting clinical and biological factors that have been linked to this association in order to improve our understanding and help elucidate potential therapeutic avenues.

Treating binge eating and food addiction symptoms with low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets: a case series

This is the first report to demonstrate the feasibility of prescribing a ketogenic diet for patients with obesity who report binge eating and food addiction symptoms. 

A randomized, placebo‐controlled crossover trial of phentermine‐topiramate ER in patients with binge‐eating disorder and bulimia nervosa

This first randomized control trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of PHEN/TPM‐ER for BED/BN found this drug combination significantly more effective at reducing binge eating than placebo and was well-tolerated. 

The Western diet: a blind spot of eating disorder research?—a narrative review and recommendations for treatment and research

Findings implicate a Western dietary pattern in poorer behavioural outcomes for adolescents. Better behavioural outcomes were associated with a higher intake of fresh fruit and leafy green vegetables.

Which foods may be addictive? The roles of processing, fat content, and glycemic load

This cross-sectional study provides preliminary evidence that not all foods are equally implicated in addictive-like eating behavior, and highly processed foods, which may share characteristics with drugs of abuse (e.g. high dose, rapid rate of absorption) appear to be particularly associated with "food addiction."

Food addiction, high-glycemic-index carbohydrates, and obesity

This review proposes that food addiction is a plausible etiological factor contributing to the heterogeneous condition and phenotype of obesity. In at least a subset of vulnerable individuals, high-glycemic-index carbohydrates trigger addiction-like neurochemical and behavioral responses.

Obese adolescents with eating disorders: Analysis of metabolic and inflammatory states

This study compared effect of interdisciplinary therapy on the physical and metabolic profiles, including body composition, insulin resistance and sensitivity as well as adiponectin and leptin concentrations, of obese adolescents with and without eating disorder symptoms. 

Inflammatory cytokines and anorexia nervosa: A meta-analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies

Despite abnormally low BMI, Anorexia Nervosa (AN) seems to be associated with increased inflammatory cytokines. Whether specific elevated cytokines represent trait or state markers of AN, and whether they could be treatment targets requires further study. 

Anorexia nervosa and the immune system—a narrative review

Research is suggestive of increased levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as the spontaneous production of tumor necrosis factor in anorexia nervosa; genetic studies further support a dysregulated immune system in this disorder.

Brain-Behavior-Immune Interaction: Serum Cytokines and Growth Factors in Patients with Eating Disorders at Extremes of the Body Mass Index (BMI) Spectrum

For the first time, IL-1α, IL-10, EGF, and IFN-γ were shown to differ between patients with anorexia nervosa and healthy controls, and between patients with anorexia and individuals with obesity with or without binge-eating disorder.

Genome-wide association study identifies eight risk loci and implicates metabo-psychiatric origins for anorexia nervosa

The genetic architecture of anorexia nervosa mirrors its clinical presentation, showing significant genetic correlations with psychiatric disorders, physical activity, and metabolic (including glycemic), lipid and anthropometric traits, independent of the effects of common variants associated with body-mass index. These results further encourage a reconceptualization of anorexia nervosa as a metabo-psychiatric disorder.

Ultra-processed foods and binge eating: A retrospective observational study

There is increasing evidence of the impact of ultra-processed foods on multiple metabolic and neurobiological pathways, including those involved in eating behaviors, both in animals and in humans. This study explored ultra-processed foods and their link with disordered eating in a clinical sample.

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